In this regard, many countries of the region particularly in the south, such as Tunisia, have initiated an institutional cooperation with NATO to train Tunisian officials in the field of arms tracking, counter-terrorism and security governance. But the continuous presence of NATO and other foreign military forces in the region, particularly from the United States, has raised many concerns in countries of the southern part of the Mediterranean Sea. In fact, Algerian diplomatic efforts have been very active recently to know more about the regained interest by NATO and the United States towards the country of the Jasmin revolution.

In fact, countries of the region are competing to convince the Trump Administration and the CIA of their role in ensuring stability and security in the Maghreb region. Indeed, the quest for the leadership in the region is the main objective of the Algerian diplomacy that has been very active in order to diversify their sources for supplying weaponry. The regaining of interest towards Tunisia has raised fears among Algerian leaders that they will see their project and quest for leadership end in ultimate failure.

Algeria's willingness to vary its arms suppliers is mainly linked to the fears of Algerian officials about the future of their national security, especially because of their country's current dependence on nearly 80% of Russian military armament and the fact that the military training of Algerian officers took place in Russia.

The current situation in the Mediterranean region is marked by regional subdivisions. Military and security cooperation should focus on the more "vulnerable" North Africa. It is necessary to highlight the importance of the ways in which relations among the countries in the region are institutionalised.

Problems linked to lack of security will persist in the south because of continuing socio-economic pressures. In the same vein, Libya’s instability is fuelled by numerous causes, both internal and external which aggravates the weakness of Libyan institutions. The migration challenges could well be addressed if the cooperation in the region is more focused on complementarity rather than competitiveness for leadership fuelled by Western forces whose main objective is to protect their geostrategic interests. It is necessary to find lasting solutions to regional differences and to encourage the cooperation between the countries of the region and to end any external influences by regional or international powers.

The example of the Maghreb Arab Union is very relevant in this case in the sense that the lack of activity and functionality of its institutions does not serve to better identify and tackle security challenges jointly and effectively, particularly when it comes to fight against human trafficking. Some countries are doubting the role that can be played by the Maghreb Arab Union in this matter and continue to impose a blockade of its institutions, such as Algeria whose lack of political will and its recent decision to cut off funds from the institution's budget have contributed to the appalling situation of this important regional organisation.

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